Here we show the research on multicellularity and other current projects. For a complete list of publications from Prof. Ratcliff, check his profile on Google Scholar.
Libby, E. and W.C. Ratcliff. Lichens and microbial syntrophies illuminate an interdependent route to multicellularity – a conceptual model. In press at The Lichenologist.
G.O. Bozdag, R.M. Pineau, E. Libby, C. Reinhard, and W.C. Ratcliff. Oxygen suppression of macroscopic multicellularity. In revision at Nature Communications.
A.J. Burnetti, W.C. Ratcliff. The Origin of Phototrophy Reveals the Importance of Priority Effects for Evolutionary Innovation. Preprints.
P. Márquez-Zacarías, R.M. Pineau, M. Gomez, A. Veliz-Cuba, D. Murrugarra, W.C. Ratcliff, and K.J. Niklas. Evolution of cellular differentiation: from hypotheses to models. Trends in Ecology and Evolution.
D. Yanni, S. Jacobeen, P. Márquez-Zacarías, J.S. Weitz, W.C. Ratcliff, and P.J. Yunker. Topological constraints in early multicellularity favor reproductive division of labor. eLife.
J.T. Pentz, P. Márquez-Zacarías, G.O. Bozdag, A.J. Burnetti, P.J. Yunker, Eric Libby, and W.C. Ratcliff. Ecological advantages and evolutionary limitations of aggregative multicellular development. Current Biology.
D. Yanni, P. Márquez-Zacarías, P.J. Yunker, and W.C. Ratcliff. Drivers of Spatial Structure in Social Microbial Communities. Current Biology.
J. Gulli, M.D. Herron and W. C. Ratcliff. Evolution of altruistic cooperation among nascent multicellular organisms. Evolution.
E. Libby and W.C. Ratcliff. Shortsighted Evolution Constrains the Efficacy of Long-Term Bet Hedging. The American Naturalist.
M.D. Herron, J.M. Borin, J.C. Boswell, J. Walker, K. Chen, C.A. Knox, M. Boyd, F. Rosenzweig, and W.C. Ratcliff. De novo origins of multicellularity in response to predation. Scientific Reports.
J. Tan, Q. He, J.T. Pentz, C. Peng, X. Yang, M.H. Tsai, Y. Chen, L. Jiang, and W.C. Ratcliff. Copper oxide nanoparticles promote the evolution of multicellularity in yeast. Nanotoxicology.
M.D. Herron, S.A. Zamani-Dahaj, and W.C. Ratcliff. Trait heritability in major transitions. BMC biology.
M.D. Herron, W.C. Ratcliff, J. Boswell, and F. Rosenzweig. Genetics of a de novo origin of undifferentiated multicellularity. Royal Society Open Science.
S. Jacobeen, E.C. Graba, C.G. Brandys, T.C. Day, W.C. Ratcliff, and P.J. Yunker. Geometry, packing, and evolutionary paths to increased multicellular size. Physical Review E.
S. Jacobeen, J.T. Pentz, E.C. Graba, C.G. Brandys, W.C. Ratcliff, and P.J. Yunker. Cellular packing, mechanical stress and the evolution of multicellularity. Nature Physics.
E. Libby, W.W. Driscoll, and W.C. Ratcliff. Programmed cell death can increase the efficacy of microbial bet hedging. Scientific Reports.
W.C. Ratcliff, M.D. Herron, P.L. Conlin, and E. Libby. Nascent life cycles and the emergence of higher-level individuality. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B.
J. Thomas, S.S. Watve, W.C. Ratcliff, and B.K. Hammer. Horizontal gene transfer of functional type VI killing genes by natural transformation. mBio.
N.V. Lowery, L. McNally, W.C. Ratcliff, and S.P. Brown. Division of labor, bet hedging, and the evolution of mixed biofilm investment strategies. mBio.
L. McNally, E. Bernardy, J. Thomas, A. Kalziqi, J. Pentz, S.P. Brown, B.K. Hammer, P.J. Yunker, and W.C. Ratcliff. Killing by type VI secretion drives genetic phase separation and correlates with increased cooperation. Nature Communications.
J.S. Weitz, C. Eksin, K. Paarporn, S.P. Brown, and W.C. Ratcliff. An oscillating tragedy of the commons in replicator dynamics with game-environment feedback. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
E. Libby, P.L. Conlin, B. Kerr, and W.C. Ratcliff. Stabilizing multicellularity through ratcheting. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B.
J.T. Pentz, B.P. Taylor, and W.C. Ratcliff. Apoptosis in snowflake yeast: novel trait, or side effect of toxic waste? Journal of The Royal Society Interface.
J.T. Pentz, T. Limberg, N. Beermann, and W.C. Ratcliff. Predator escape: an ecologically realistic scenario for the evolutionary origins of multicellularity. Evolution: Education and Outreach.
W.C. Ratcliff, J.D. Fankhauser, D.W. Rogers, D. Greig, and M. Travisano. Origins of multicellular evolvability in snowflake yeast. Nature Communications.
W.C. Ratcliff, P. Hawthorne, and E.Libby. Courting disaster: How diversification rate affects fitness under risk. Evolution.
E. Libby and W.C. Ratcliff. Ratcheting the evolution of multicellularity. Science.
E.Libby, W.C. Ratcliff, M. Travisano, and B. Kerr. Geometry Shapes Evolution of Early Multicellularity. PLoS Computational Biology.
W.C. Ratcliff and M. Travisano. Experimental Evolution of Multicellular Complexity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. BioScience.
W.C. Ratcliff, A. Raney, S. Westreich, and S. Cotner. A Novel Laboratory Activity for Teaching about the Evolution of Multicellularity. The American Biology Teacher.
W.C. Ratcliff, M.D. Herron, K. Howell, J.T. Pentz, F. Rosenzweig, and M. Travisano. Experimental evolution of an alternating uni-and multicellular life cycle in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Nature Communications.
W.C. Ratcliff, M. Hoverman, M. Travisano, and R.F. Denison. Disentangling direct and indirect fitness effects of microbial dormancy. The American Naturalist.
W.C. Ratcliff, J.T. Pentz, and M. Travisano. Tempo and mode of multicellular adaptation in experimentally evolved Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Evolution.
E.T. Kiers, W.C. Ratcliff and R.F. Denison. Single strain inoculation may creates spurious correlations between legume fitness and rhizobial fitness. New Phytologist.
W.C. Ratcliff, R.F. Denison, M. Borrello, and Michael Travisano. Experimental evolution of multicellularity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
W.C. Ratcliff, K. Underbakke and R. F. Denison. Measuring the fitness of symbiotic rhizobia. Symbiosis. 2011.
W.C. Ratcliff and R.F. Denison. Alternative actions for antibiotics. Science. 2011
W.C. Ratcliff and R.F. Denison. Bacterial persistence and bet hedging in Sinorhizobium meliloti. Communicative & Integrative Biology. 2011
W.C. Ratcliff and R.F. Denison. Individual-level bet hedging in the bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti. Current Biology. 2010.
W.C. Ratcliff , P. Hawthorne, M. Travisano, and R. F. Denison. When stress predicts a shrinking gene pool, trading early reproduction for longevity can increase fitness, even with lower fecundity. PLoS One. 2009.
W.C. Ratcliff and R. F. Denison. 2009. Rhizobitoxine producers gain more poly-3-hydroxybutyrate in symbiosis than do competing rhizobia, but reduce plant growth. The ISME Journal. 2009.
W.C. Ratcliff, S. V. Kadam, and R. F. Denison. 2008. Polyhydroxybutyrate supports survival and reproduction in starving rhizobia. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 2008.